Subject: Paradigm Shift examples|
From: "Bill Howell. Hussar. Alberta. Canada" <>
Date: Tue, 14 Aug 2018 15:54:22 -0600
To: Catherine "Howell." "Founder." EightLoop Social & Yeity "website."
Ouch! I started on this after your 23Jul2018 phone call, jotted down brain-farts, got buried in my physics project till 04Aug, jotted more paradigms, got into www.ijcnn.org work for a week or so, and got back to paradigms today. This email started to become a monster in spite of not having all ideas that popped to mind. There are a huge number of great paradigm shifts and revolutionary thoughts. However, I find these percolate to the surface only slowly as I try to remember, and only rarely do I remember those that struck me several decades ago.
The first problem is to define "paradigm shift", as I'm sure that Thomas Kuhn's definition has been [expanded, contorted] over the years (see my comment towards the end below, that I strangely avoid formal reading of Khun). Perhaps a safe, conservative definition would be restricted to abrupt changes to the overwhelming, mainstream science beliefs (theories, concepts). But that conflicts much broader popular usage today. And to me, the paradigmatic problems in scientific thinking are no different than we see across [societies,history,subjects]. I prefer at this stage to include :
Unrecognized paradigm shifts are as bad as unanticipated paradigm shifts - very hard to deal with. And, by the way, if you cherish and follow popular paradigms, then you aren't a paradigmatic thinker, you're a follower. Make your own paradigms.
Anyways, I had better stop here for now. In any case, there is no way to make the lists or explanations complete within a "practically finite" amount of time.
Paradigm Shift examples - [past,present,future]
("cart" is the Cartesian array operator than each element from each array)
Health, Food, Environment
We are still improving hospital hygiene. But this really raises the question of other health cahllenges - which are hindered by "what we know" today? What about real causes for cancer, mental illness, etc, etc, and while work has been pursued frenetically in the areas of [genetics,epigentics], how is this hindered by current scientific religions?
Management, Jobs, Markets
History, War, Politics
Religion, Philosophy, Psychology, Science, Mathematics
"... The field of Artificial Intelligence, or AI, attempts to build intelligence systems on the basis of more familiar rule-based operations and symbolism. I like to say that it tries to attain machine intelligence by mimicking human [rational, logical, and scientific] reasoning. It's best successes were probably expert systems and case-based reasoning, but these proved to be unable to tackle tougher challenges.
Nobody's getting this message from the current hype, nor its implications for Western philosophy.
Precedents & Beyond paradigms
Thomas Khun "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions"
One cannot avoid constant reference to, and quotations from, Khun given my interst if the failures of scientific thinking. And I've long been convinced that it is folly to NOT read the original work, and to only rely on the oft-rubbish interpretations of others. In spite of that, for years I've intentionally avoided reading Khun. The reason is that it is important for me to develop my own thinking as independently as possible. At least two important outcomes are :
Malcolm Gladwell's "Tipping Point"
Gladwell's books are interesting to me, initially because he created hype and fashion from ancient ideas with new terminology (how? and why are people so excited), and then as I read some interesting substance in his "Tiiping Point", that none who I talked to retained from his book. There's a message there, and not just the normal politically-correct message. It's like the phrase "paradigm"...
Lucio Russo "How science began in 300BC, and why it had to be reinvented"
Most ancient science was lost, and I assume the same for their paradigms!!! Do we really have many new, significant paradigms, that one could have learned from the ancients? Even in science on must be careful. For example, Signmund Freud clearly credited some of his key ideas to the ancient Greeks. Were these really ancients Greek ideas, or did they merely transcribe even more ancient sources?
Illustrative paradigmatic fiascos of modern science : "The bigger they are, the harder they fall"
What was the fraud : the science or our scientist-reactionaries?
Karl Popper - falsifiable hypothesis. Lazy and out of time, I'll just quote :
"... Popper’s early work attempts to solve the problem of demarcation and offer a clear criterion that distinguishes scientific theories from metaphysical or mythological claims. Popper’s falsificationist methodology holds that scientific theories are characterized by entailing predictions that future observations might reveal to be false. When theories are falsified by such observations, scientists can respond by revising the theory, or by rejecting the theory in favor of a rival or by maintaining the theory as is and changing an auxiliary hypothesis. In either case, however, this process must aim at the production of new, falsifiable predictions ..." https://www.iep.utm.edu/pop-sci/
Sir William of Occam - "Occam's razor" or "Keep it simple, stupid" (KISS)
"A good question is worth a thousand good answers" - although these can get you [unemployed,outcast,killed].