#]
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#] "$d_web"'Projects - mini/Randell Mills/Holverstott book notes.txt'
www.BillHowell.ca 20Sep2018 initial
To view this file - use a text editor (not word processor) constant width font (eg courrier 10), tab - 3 spaces
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# Table of Contents, generated by :
# $ grep "^#]" "$d_web"'Projects - mini/Randell Mills/Holverstott book notes.txt' | sed 's/^#\]/ /'
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"$d_web"'Projects - mini/Randell Mills/Holverstott book notes.txt'
10Aug2022 10Aug2022 Business Presentation August 1, 2022
10Aug2022 Dr. Randy Booker, 5yr Review, Confirms theories, Predicted Big Bang Bust
20Sep2018 SuspObs: Quantum theory cannot consistently describe the use of itself
19Sep2018 SuspObs Nanometer-size Dust Grains in the Interstellar Medium of Galaxies
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#] ??Aug2022
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#] ??Aug2022
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#] ??Aug2022
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#] 10Aug2022 1st commercial application, 250kW thermal boiler, in 2020
from : 01Aug2022 Business Presentation
https://brilliantlightpower.com/pdf/Business_Presentation.pdf
Developed & validated working prototype. BLP has discovered and proven the existence of Hydrino®; developed a device, a SunCell®, to convert the radiant power release to electricity using concentrator PV to power essentially all thermal, cooling, electrical, and motive applications. Extensive tests/proofs have been validated at commercial scale. The Company began building a prototype of current SunCells® in 2018, and completed development of the first commercial application, a 250kW thermal boiler, in 2020.
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#] 10Aug2022 emto Randy Booker. Prof Physics. Uof North Carolina - auto-checks
Randy A. Booker, Ph.D.
57 Azalea Drive
Weaverville, NC 28787
(828) 251-6269
Booker@unca.edu
Randy Booker. Prof Physics. Uof North Carolina. USA
Subject : Verification of Randell Mills' theories
I came across your reviews on the Brilliant Light Power website, and I am very impressed by your important work. Congratulations on the detail and breadth of your work!
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Booker-MillsBook-Chapter4-2017.pdf
One surprising, yet interesting, prediction of the equation of the photon is that of photon torpedoes. Since the CP model of the photon is derived based on atomic orbitals, energy emitted as a photon is not diminished in intensity as the electromagnetic wave moves through space. This results in photon torpedoes. There could be many applications of photon torpedoes in the military, communications, and power generation and transfer industries. There is a body of evidence that these photon torpedoes should exist, as pointed out by Dr. Mills here in Chapter 4.
One result from the proponents of quantum mechanics that I found to be quite interesting was that the laser should not exist since its operation violates the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. Both Bohr and Von Neumann denied that the laser (and maser) was possible, until Charles Townes showed them one in operation. This shows the shortcomings of the older quantum theory, as pointed out in footnote 1 in Chapter 4 on page 201 of CP.
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Booker-MillsBook-Chapter5-2018.pdf
Next, he calculates the interstellar disproportionation rate and the power generated by this process. He also discusses Hydrino Catalyzed Fusion (HCF). In HCF, as the atomic orbital shrinks with transitions down to energy states that lie lower in energy than the ground state, the two nuclei of the corresponding molecule formed from two atoms in such states can get much closer than they normally do. This makes it more probable that fusion can occur between the two nuclei. How small can this internuclear distance be? This depends on the new “ground” state found in the hydrino atom. The smallest atomic orbital and the lowest-lying level are determined due to the limiting speed, which is the speed of light. This places a limit on the quantity p. Dr. Mills finds that p ≤ 137.
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Booker-MillsBook-Chapter7-2018.pdf
To be able to solve a two-electron atom/ion using Dr. Mills’ Classical Physics is truly an amazing feat. A two electron system is a three body problem, which in classical mechanics has no closed form solution. It has to be solved by approximation methods using numerical analysis on a computer, and then the results are only an approximation. The fact that Dr. Mills’ theory can solve two-electron systems exactly is truly remarkable. And the agreement with experimental values shows very little error. This is a tremendous accomplishment and should not be taken lightly. Quantum mechanics can’t solve these systems exactly, and must rely on approximation methods, and the results aren’t very close to experimental values even then. Only this new theory of Classical Physics can solve them exactly. I never thought I’d see the day when this was accomplished, until I met Dr. Mills and his theory. Remarkable.
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Booker-MillsBook-Chapter8-2018.pdf
Next, the array theorem is applied to the two-slit interference experiments involving both photons and electrons. Dr. Mills asserts that the wave-particle duality of both electrons and photons arises classically. The diffraction pattern and the intensity of the two-slit experiment are derived. It is pointed out that the distribution pattern observed using diffracting electrons is exactly equivalent to the distribution pattern observed using diffracting photons.
Finally an electron scattering equation for the Helium atom based on the atomic orbital model of Chapter 7 is developed. Experimental results for the elastic scattering of electrons off of helium atoms are presented along with modified quantum mechanical calculations. These calculations fail to predict the experimental results at small scattering angles. However the CP theory predicts the correct behavior at small scattering angles, in line with the experimental results. It is pointed out that the Born interpretation must be rejected since it is only valid if the speed of the electron is equal to infinity. It must be rejected since the electron velocity cannot exceed c without violating special relativity. Dr. Mills states that “The failure of the Born and Schrodinger model of the electron to provide a consistent representation of the states of the electron from a bound state to an ionized state to a scattered state also represents a failure of the dependent Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle.”
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Booker-MillsBook-Chapter9-2018.pdf
Table 9.1 compiles these radii r1 and r2 for the singlet ...
Table 9.3 compiles these radii r1 and r2 for the singlet ...
Table 9.4 compiles these radii r1 and r2 for the triplet ...
Table 9.5 lists all of the...
The above paragraphs have similar ending, like :
...excited states of Helium with l ≠ 0, the term symbol for the excited states, the CP predicted energy level, the experimental NIST energy level, the difference between the CP and NIST values for the energy level, and the relative difference (Theoretical – Experimental)/Experimental. Once again the agreement between the theoretical energy levels and the experimental energy levels for the excited states of Helium is amazing. Mills calculations are in wonderful agreement with the known experimental energy levels.
Additional comments for Table 9.5 :
In all cases (for over 100 states of Helium), the agreement between the theoretical energy levels and the experimental energy levels for the excited states of Helium is remarkable. Mills calculations are in exceptional agreement with the known experimental energy levels.
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Booker-MillsBook-Chapter10-2018.pdf
In Chapter 10, all atoms from 3-electron atoms to 20-electron atoms can be solved exactly in closed form solutions, unlike traditional quantum mechanics which must resort to approximation methods. In the traditional approach, approximation methods using the Schrodinger equation must be used since these are n-body problems. And n-body problems cannot be solved by the use of closed-form solutions. They must be solved by approximation methods using combinations of 2-body interactions. This chapter discusses 18 multi-electron systems, from 3-electron atoms, to 4-electron atoms, to 5-electron atoms, all the way up to 20-electron atoms. Since this chapter is longer than other chapters in the CP book (115 pages compared to an average chapter length of 23 pages), I decided to focus my analysis on just three of the multi-electron systems discussed in this chapter: the 3-electron atoms, the 12-electron atoms, and the 20-electron atoms. Even the verification of just these three atomic systems proved to be time intensive, but worth it since the CP results were completely verified in the process of my analysis.
...The solution for r3 involves applying the quadratic formula to find the solution of this quadratic equation. Once r3 is known, then the ionization energies of 3-electron atoms having a nuclear charge of Z > 3 are found simply and straightforwardly. However, relativistic corrections to r1 (the radius of the orbitsphere of the two inner electrons) and to r3 must be used, adding to the complexity of the calculation. The results of r1, r 3, electric energy, change in the kinetic energy of the inner electrons, theoretical ionization energy, experimental ionization energy, and relative error between the two ionization energies are given in Table 10.1 for 3-electron atoms with Z values ranging from Z=3 to Z=29.
The agreement in Table 10.1 between the CP theoretical ionization energies and the experimental ionization energies is nothing short of amazing. This is one of the great successes of CP: that it predicts the ionization energies of 3-electron up through 20- electron atoms and gets them right.
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Booker-MillsBook-Chapter11-2018.pdf
Howell : Many, many interesting comments for this chapter - I have only included the ending paragraph...
Next, the chapter gives a summary of the major geometrical results of the four molecular systems in Figure 11.5, and compares them to results for atoms in Figure 11.4. Next, the ortho-para transition frequency for hydrogen-type molecules is derived. Then there is presented a discussion of the nuclear magnetic resonance shift for these molecular systems. This yields an expression for the absolute upfield chemical shift. There is a relativistic correction to this upfield chemical shift which is discussed, which yields a slightly modified expression. The upfield chemical shift value is shown to be in excellent agreement with the one from experiments.
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Booker-MillsBook-Chapter12-2018.pdf
Next is a discussion of Diatomic Molecular Rotation, including reduced mass and the rigid rotor model. This general case of Diatomic Molecular Rotation is applied to Hydrogen-type molecules and Hydrogen-type molecular ions. Next, a discussion of a non-rigid rotor model, including the effects of centrifugal distortion, is presented. Now the bond between the two atoms of the molecule is considered to be stretchable, as a spring connecting the two masses. As the system rotates faster and faster, the spring can stretch more, leading to bond lengthening and centrifugal distortion. The energy of the molecule including centrifugal distortion is presented. One experimental constant from ~ ~ this discussion is De. Calculated values of De are compared with known experimental ~ values of De, for both the H2 and the D2 molecules. The theoretical and experimental values compare very well.
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MillsBook Chapter 13 2018.pdf
In Chapter 13, the Classical Quantum Mechanics theory is applied to predict results pertaining to several molecules and molecular systems including the H3+ Molecular Ion, the OH Hydroxyl Radical, the Water Molecule H2O, Hydrogen Nitride NH, Dihydrogen Nitride NH2, Ammonia NH3, Hydrogen Carbide CH, Dihydrogen Carbide CH2, the CH3 Methyl Radical, the Methane Molecule CH4, the N2 Nitrogen Molecule, the O2 Oxygen Molecule, the F2 Fluorine Molecule, the Cl2 Chlorine Molecule, the Carbon Nitride Radical CN, the Carbon Monoxide Molecule CO, and the Nitric Oxide Radical NO. I chose to investigate in detail three of these molecules: the Water Molecule, the Methyl Radical CH3, and the Fluorine Molecule.
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Booker-MillsBook-Chapter14-2019.pdf
In my analysis, I verified calculations and equations involving the CO2 carbon dioxide molecule, the C2H6 ethane molecule, and the hydrocarbon molecules Propane, Butane, Pentane, Hexane, Heptane, Octane, Nonane, Decane, Undecane, Dodecane, and Octadecane found in Chapter 14 More Polyatomic Molecules and Hydrocarbons of the book “The Grand Unified Theory of Classical Physics” by Dr. Randell L. Mills. I verified equations and values to a high degree of accuracy that are associated with these molecular systems. There is a remarkable agreement between the GUTCP calculated values for the energies, bond distances, and bond angles of these molecular systems and experimental values of those corresponding quantities.
I chose to investigate in detail three of these molecular systems: the CO2 Molecule, the Ethane Molecule, and the hydrocarbon molecules listed above. ...
For the hydrocarbon molecules Propane, Butane, Pentane, Hexane, Heptane, Octane, Nonane, Decane, Undecane, Dodecane, and Octadecane, only the total bond dissociation energy is calculated from the GUTCP theory and compared with the experimental total bond dissociation energy. However, for each hydrocarbon, there is remarkable agreement between the GUTCP-derived bond dissociation energy and the experimental result. Diagrams of what each hydrocarbon looks like are shown.
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Booker-MillsBook-Chapter15-2019.pdf
In Chapter 15, we are reminded that alkanes and other organic molecules can be considered to be composed of the functional groups CH3, CH2, and C-C. Other organic molecules can also be made from these same functional groups, as well, such as ethers, alcohols, ketones, and esters. The functional group solutions can be added up to give the solution for any organic molecule.
These solutions involve Molecular Orbitals (MOs) and Atomic Orbitals (AOs). Energies and bond distances can be calculated. Also, the radius of the hybridized shell can directly be calculated. The total energy of the shell turns out to be equal to the total Coulombic energy plus the hybridization energy. Such results are tabulated in Tables 15.1, 15.2, 15.3.A, and 15.3.B.
The charge distribution in the molecule can be calculated. Also, angles between where two prolate spheroidal MOs intersect can be found. The total energy can be calculated and the semimajor axis can be found.
During bond formation, the electrons undergo a re-entrant oscillatory orbit with vibration of the nuclei. The angular frequency of this oscillation can be calculated. Angles and distances for a molecular orbit (MO) that forms an isosceles triangle can be found. Equations for the dihedral angle and the general dihedral angle can be calculated, as well.
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MillsBook Chapter 16_Revised_2019.pdf
In my analysis, I verified calculations and equations involving molecular functional groups of NaH, H2 O in vapor phase, H2O and NH3, Graphite, Liquid Helium, Solid Neon, Solid Argon, Solid Krypton, and Solid Xenon found in Chapter 16 of the book “The Grand Unified Theory of Classical Physics” by Dr. Randell L. Mills. I verified equations and values to a high degree of accuracy that are associated with these molecular systems. There is a remarkable agreement between the GUTCP calculated values for the energies and distances of these molecular systems and my calculations. I verified the entries found in Tables 16.13, 16.14, 16.15, 16.16, 16.20, 16.21, 16.22, 16.23, 16.24, 16.25, 16.26, 16.27, 16.28, 16.29, 16.30, 16.31, 16.32, 16.34, 16.35, 16.38, and 16.41.
I was able to verify the GUTCP results of Chapter 16 in excellent agreement with my own calculations. I successfully reproduced almost all of the equations and their corresponding values found in Chapter 16. I verified that all entries in Tables 16.13, 16.14, 16.15, 16.16, 16.20, 16.21, 16.22, 16.23, 16.24, 16.25, 16.26, 16.27, 16.28, 16.29, 16.30, 16.31, 16.32, 16.34, 16.35, 16.38, and 16.41 are indeed correct. This chapter demonstrates that the GUTCP theory is successful at describing NaH, H2O in vapor phase, H2O and NH3, Graphite, Liquid Helium, Solid Neon, Solid Argon, Solid Krypton, and Solid Xenon, to a high degree of accuracy.
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MillsBook Chapter 17.pdf
In my analysis, I verified calculations and equations involving the solid molecular bond found in the three allotropes of Carbon, namely 1) Diamond, 2) Fullerene C60, and 3) Graphene and Graphite found in Chapter 17 of the book “The Grand Unified Theory of Classical Physics” by Dr. Randell L. Mills. I verified equations and values to a high degree of accuracy that are associated with these molecular systems. There is a remarkable agreement between the GUTCP calculated values for the energies, distances, and parameters of these molecular systems and my calculations. I verified the entries found in Tables 17. 1 to Table 17.19. I also verified as correct the equations and values found in Equations 17.1 through 17.25.
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MillsBook Chapter 18 Jul7 02, 2019.pdf
In my analysis, I verified calculations and equations involving the ionic bond of LiX, NaX, KX, RbX, CsX, and Potassium Hydrino Hydride (KH(1⁄4)), where X=[H, Cl, F]
- ionic molecular bond
- lattice energy and the MH distance
- Alkali Halide Lattice Parameters and [Energies, MF distance ro, crystal structures, MCl distance ro,
I verified equations and values to a high degree of accuracy that are associated with these molecular systems. There is a remarkable agreement between the GUTCP calculated values for the energies, distances, and parameters of these molecular systems and my calculations. I verified as correct all the equations and values found in Equations 18.1 through 18.82.
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MillsBook Chapter 19 070819.pdf
In Chapter 19, the GUTCP book investigates the metallic bond of Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs metals. The molar metal bond energy ED and the lattice parameter a are found for each metal. These values are compared to known experimental values, and there is remarkable agreement between the two values for each alkali metal. Crystal structures for each of these alkali metals are also drawn.
Chapter 19 starts off with a discussion of the metallic bond. The method of images from Electromagnetic Theory is used. Alkali metal crystal structures are drawn. The dimensions of lengths of l1 , l2 , l3 , and l4 are found in equation form. Also determined in equation form are θd and θp. Next are diagrams of the crystal structure of the Li metal lattice where the electrons form two-dimensional membranes of zero-thickness. The kinetic energy and potential energy of this membrane are found. Next found is the lattice parameter a. And finally the molar metal bond energy ED is found.
Next, the separation distance d between each M+ and the corresponding electron membrane is determined by a force balance equation.
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MillsBook Chapter 20.pdf
In Chapter 20, the GUTCP book investigates the Silicon Molecular Bond. Silanes can be considered to be made up of functional groups such as SiH3, SiH2, SiH, Si-Si, and C-Si. Silicon has a bonding structure similar to Carbon, since they are in the same column in the Chemical Periodic Table.
Next in Chapter 20, the book derives ECoulomb, r12, E(magnetic), E(Si, 3sp3), ET(SiSilane, 3sp3), rsilane, Ecoul, ET(Sisilane, 3sp3), ET(Si-Si, 3sp3), and ET(Si-H, 3sp3).
A force balance equation is set up which results in a value for a for the Si-H Group and for the Si-Si Group. Next are charge density diagrams of Silanes and Disilanes. Tables of the geometrical bond parameters of silanes, the MO to HO intercept geometrical bond parameters of silanes, the energy parameters of the functional groups of silanes, the total bond energies of silanes, and the bond angle parameters of silanes are presented.
Next comes a discussion of Alkyl Silanes and Disilanes. Charge density diagrams of Dimethylsilane and Hexamethyldisilane are shown. Tables of the geometrical bond parameters of alkyl silanes and disalines, the MO to HO intercept geometrical bond parameters of alkyl silanes and disalines, the energy parameters of the functional groups of alkyl silanes and disalines, the total bond energies of alkyl silanes and disalines, and the bond angle parameters of alkyl silanes and disalines are presented.
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#] 10Aug2022 10Aug2022 Business Presentation August 1, 2022
https://brilliantlightpower.com/pdf/Business_Presentation.pdf
Brilliant Light Power – At a Glance
Working and independently validated pilot producing over 200 kW 100% clean, net power
image : 250 kW Commercial-Scale Boiler
Breakthrough in 2020. We have developed a demonstration 250 kW
SunCell® steam boiler to produce hot water and steam - run
continuously daily for over 100 hours in aggregate to prove the
commercial competitiveness of the Hydrino power source.
Independently validated results by [3] leading professors/labs.
Large addressable markets: capable of serving the $16.3T/y electrical
stationary power, electrical motive power, thermal markets
corresponding to essentially the world’s power markets.
Total Electrification: Essentially every imaginable power consuming
device in the world can be electrified with proven, cost competitive,
reliable, safe, UL approved, warranted systems, mass-produced and
supported by the world’s OEMs. The SunCell® can power these devices
completely autonomously of fuels and grid infrastructure, operating in
essentially any environment at greater power density and power to
weight ratio than any prior known power source.
With one-years production, the 15TW peak generating capacity of the
world can be supplied by 60M, 250kW SunCell® without any pollution
including greenhouse gases-climate change crisis gone.
Currently hosting demonstrations in our facilities for major
corporations (potential clients/partners) and investors.
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#] 10Aug2022 Dr. Randy Booker, 5yr Review, Confirms theories, Predicted Big Bang Bust
https://brilliantlightpower.com/gutcp-review-completed-webb-shows-predicted-big-bang-bust/
GUTCP Review Completed, Webb Shows Predicted Big Bang Bust
We report Dr. Randy Booker, Professor of Physics, University of North Carolina, Asheville has completed the peer review1 of the entire Mills, Grand Unified Theory of Classical Physics (GUTCP)2, involving a five year effort. All the final derivations, computations, and comparisons with experimental observations were confirmed correct. Rather than assuming that the electron was a singularity, yet exists over all space simultaneously, the origins of Mills GUTCP was based on first seeking a physical solution of the electron by treating it as a source current for the absorption and emission of discrete electromagnetic waves, photons. This starting point revisits the stability of the atom to radiation.
In the atom such as the simplest one, hydrogen, the electron is constantly accelerating around the proton in an atomic orbit. Yet, classical physics requires that accelerating charges radiate energy, which would cause the electron to spiral into the nucleus in a fraction of a second. This seminal problem of the stability of the atom was one of the key obstacles that physicists faced early in the 20th century, and their inability to solve it led to the construction of quantum theory. Mills solved the structure of the electron using classical physical laws, such that electron orbits were stable to radiation. This allowed Mills to construct a new theory of atoms and molecules that was based entirely on classical physics that provides exact solutions for core phenomena and observables of chemistry and physics over the scale of quarks to cosmos, 85 orders of magnitude. These results confirm that it was a colossal mistake to assume that physical laws do not apply to the atomic scale, the founding postulate of quantum theory. The same is true on the cosmological scale regarding the quantum-fluctuation-singularity to Big Bang to inflation to dark-energy origin and evolution theories of the universe recently observationally disproved.
Physical laws such as those of mechanics (Newton-Lorentz) and those of electrodynamics (Maxwell) require that as matter converts into energy according to E=mc2, spacetime expands according to c3/(4PiG) wherein G is the Newtonian gravitational constant. The resulting dynamic behavior is a universe that oscillates between matter-filled and energy-filled with a period of one trillion years. In 1995, Mills published the GUTCP prediction3 that the expansion of the universe was accelerating from the same equations that correctly predicted the present Hubble constant and the mass of the top quark before they were measured as well as those of the other fundamental particles and cosmological parameters. To the astonishment of cosmologists, Mills acceleration prediction was confirmed by 2000. Moreover, Mills GUTCP value for the Hubble constant matches the present observed value which has created another crisis in astrophysics regarding cosmological models that inescapably predict an unacceptable fitted value of Hubble constant from other fitted terms. Mills made another prediction based on GUTCP that the identity of dark matter is Hydrino, a more stable allotrope of molecular hydrogen, now isolated and confirmed by 23 spectroscopic methods 4 5 6. Furthermore, the recent unanticipated Webb telescope images confirm additional GUTCP predictions of fully formed galaxies and old galaxies at the beginning of the expansion of the universe that disprove the long held metaphysical Big Bang and related theories of cosmology.
https://brilliantlightpower.com/theory/ Reviews by Dr. Randy Booker and Dr. Mark Nansteel.
https://brilliantlightpower.com/book-download-and-streaming/
R. L. Mills, The Grand Unified Theory of Classical Quantum Mechanics, November 1995 Edition, Library of Congress Catalog Number 94-077780 Chp.22 ISBN number ISBN 0-9635171-1-2.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360319922022406
https://brilliantlightpower.com/pdf/Hydrino_States_of_Hydrogen.pdf
https://brilliantlightpower.com/pdf/Analytical_Presentation.pdf
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#] 20Sep2018 SuspObs: Quantum theory cannot consistently describe the use of itself
>> Wow!!!
Daniela Frauchiger & Renato Renner 18Sep2018 "Quantum theory cannot consistently describe the use of itself" Nature Communications volume 9, Article number: 3711 (2018) https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-05739-8
Quantum theory provides an extremely accurate description of fundamental processes in physics. It thus seems likely that the theory is applicable beyond the, mostly microscopic, domain in which it has been tested experimentally. Here, we propose a Gedankenexperiment to investigate the question whether quantum theory can, in principle, have universal validity. The idea is that, if the answer was yes, it must be possible to employ quantum theory to model complex systems that include agents who are themselves using quantum theory. Analysing the experiment under this presumption, we find that one agent, upon observing a particular measurement outcome, must conclude that another agent has predicted the opposite outcome with certainty. The agents’ conclusions, although all derived within quantum theory, are thus inconsistent. This indicates that quantum theory cannot be extrapolated to complex systems, at least not in a straightforward manner.
From another unknown ?news? source "... The authors, Daniela Frauchiger and Renato Renner of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich, posted their first version ofthe argument online in April 2016. The final paper now appears in Nature Communications on 18 September 2018. (Frauchiger has now left academia.) ..."
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#] 19Sep2018 SuspObs Nanometer-size Dust Grains in the Interstellar Medium of Galaxies
https://arxiv.org/pdf/1809.06552.pdf
The Widespread Presence of Nanometer-size Dust Grains in the Interstellar Medium of Galaxies
Yanxia Xie 1, Luis C. Ho 1,2, Aigen Li 3, and Jinyi Shangguan 1,2
1 Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China; yanxia.xie@pku.edu.cn, lho.pku@gmail.com
2 Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University,Beijing 100871, China;shang-guan@pku.edu.cn
3 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA; lia@missouri.edu
"... The prevalence of such a grain population is revealed conclusively as prominent mid-infrared continuum emission at λ<=10μm seen in the Spitzer/IRS data, characterized by temperatures of ∼300–400 K that are significantly higher than the equilibrium temperatures of common, submicron-size grains in typical galactic environments. ..."
My posting :
With respect to dark matter, I recommend keeping in mind the concept of "fractional quantum levels" of electrons, and promising spectra (EUV, NMR in particular) which are complimentary to the nano-grain dust hypothesis (the Xie, Ho, Li, Shangguan 18Sep2018 paper is based on Spitzer/TRS spectra). Bill Lucas and Randall Mills have based some of their work on this (references below), and Lucas also has a more profound substitute for [Newtonian, MOND, General Relativity] forces to explain galactic rotational speeds.
1) Charles William Lucas 2013 "The universal force : Volume 1 - Derived from a more perfect union of the axiomatic and empirical scientific methods" www.commonsensescience.org ISBN-13: 978-1482328943, ISBN-10: 1482328941
2) Brett Holverstott 2016 "Randell Mills and the search for hydrino energy" 437pp, self-published, www.BrettHolverstoot.com
p253 Chapter 14 The Hydrino universe, p266 Figure "EUV emissions from a hydrogen plasma, p268 Table "Comparison of lines found in Labov and Bowyer's diffuse EUV ... with those found in BLP's 98% helium / 2% hdrogen plasma cell"
# enddoc