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Quantum Mechanics vs Kaal's Structured Atom Model

Table of Contents

  • Howell: questions about SAM
  • Nomenclature, acronyms
  • Definitions: nuclear [material, process, deactivate]s
  • References
    Important related themes :

    Edo Kaal's 'Structured Atom Model' (SAM)

    From the SAM webPage :
    "... SAM is a revolutionary new model for the atom. The model provides a clean slate approach about a new beginning—not limited to our knowledge about the atom—leading to new insights. In SAM the nucleus has a fixed structure consisting of protons kept together by inner electrons. The neutron is no longer a fundamental particle but is a proton–electron pair. Structure follows the principle of spherically dense packing. Recurring substructures—called endings and nuclets—emerge, defining the setup of the nuclei of the elements.

    For the first time, real insight is provided explaining why elements have the properties they reveal through observation. The reason for the asymmetric breakup of fissionable isotopes is revealed as well as a potential breakthrough explaining Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR). Those are just some of many explanations SAM provides for previously unexplained observations. A new numbering system for the elements, based on the number of deuterons in the nucleus, leads to a new periodic table and predicts currently missing elements—most of them unstable … but not all.

    Edo Kaal, James Sorensen
    Andreas Otto, Jan Emming

    "Atom Viewer" 3D rotatable online model to see nucleus structures for each element according to SAM

    J.E. Kaal, A. Otte, J.A. Sorensen, J.G. Emming 2021 "The nature of the atom", 268pp ISBN 978-1-8381280-2-9

    Edo Kaal presentation 'The Structured Atom Model', EU2017 conference

    "... Edwin Kaal presented a new model for the atom based upon the principles of densest packing, balancing of electrostatic forces, symmetry, and the stable geometry of Platonic solids. Using this model, the sacrosanct “strong force" of the modern theory is not required. In addition, neutrons are redefined as a connection between protons and electrons. Thus, atoms in his model are just protons and electrons in electrostatic and geometric equilibrium. Following simple rules and postulations, a structured atomic model emerges. The shapes represent specific attributes of the elements such as the valence value. The model shows how a number of nucleons and the geometric shapes correlate to the elements; why there are forbidden configurations; and how groups in the periodic table naturally arise. Magnetic spheres can be used to mimic the nucleus-specific construction and can be learned by anyone. Importantly, this model does not contradict the evidence in chemistry and physics, but rather provides a new interpretation and a promisingly fresh approach. With this model, Edwin has been able to resolve enigmas in chemistry and make predictions to inform future research. ..."

    sschirott March 11, 2018 - 11:00 am
    video of presentation 20Aug2017, Electric Universe EU2017 Future Science conference
    Phoenix, Arizona, USA,, available on YouTube

    Full video transcript
    Table of Contents :

    into video
    very short description
    30.2 Current concept : nucleus is made up of a chaotic block of protons and neutrons. There is no known structure for the nucleus. Quantum Mechanics (QM) states that it's impossible to show true shapes, instead relies on mathematics to express the atom's non-deterministic nature.
    66.5 Is it possible that there is a structure to the nucleus of the atom?
    99.7 History of atomic theory : early 1800s John Dalton, 1864 John Newlands, 1867 Mendeleev, 1897 JJ Thomson, Chadwick (discovered neutron), acceptance of the neutrons in about 1933 (?Solvay conference in Brussels?)

    603.6 current understanding of the atoms and the elements is very poor to say the least. 2006 Kall started building "Structured Atomic Model" (SAM)
    730.2 SAM is a new model, question as to why the [proton, electron]s do not annihilate each other is still unanswered
    822.7 about 2008 Kaal found a correlation of spherical geometry: lithium - pentagonal bipyramid, 2010 carbon - icosahedron, 2012 entire structure of the nucleus and how it functions
    864.2 principle: the densest packing that creates geometric shapes.
    907.9 there's only one fundamental force : electrostatic. the neutron is not a fundamental particle - it's just a connection between nuclear [electron, protons]. sphere or a proton must always be part of one of the geometrical structures [tetrahedron, pentagonal bipyramid, icosahedron]. the inner structure of the atom the nucleus dictates outer electrons (orbiters)
    966.5 the "new SAM Neutron non-fundamental particle" : instead of being fundamental particle it is in the center of an electron with its two neighboring <photons,protons>
    1104.4 papers done by Carl Johnson - statistical analysis of isotope masses. precise NIST data seems to indicate that there is no energy which exists within any Atomic nuclei to account for the existence of any pi mesons, or the necessary binding energy of any neutrons, or any ultra powerful strong force, or any neutrinos for that fact.
    1238.4 2016 James Sorensen started collaborating with Kaal, creating three-dimensional "Atom Builder" software. the model has already been proven to be crucial for further continuation.
    1364.3 here we see the platonic solids again create using spherical geometry. take note that the [cube, dodecahedra] are not stable. the icosahedron is the most complete of the platonic solids meaning there is no bigger geometrical shape that can fit into a sphere. satisfys densest packing principle
    1492.4 carbon embodies the icosahedron with its 20 triangular facets. In the illustration, not all the Triangular facets of the nucleus are occupied, meaning there are positive spots left on the nucleus that can still react. this is basically the fundamental principle as to why chemistry is happening.
    1625.5 carbon backbone of the nucleus (icosahedron) or as determined in this model a carbon nucleic, whereby nucleic refers to the identified geometrical shapes of the protons. is therefore collection of the connected carbon nucleus that adhere to a doubling mechanism.
    1718.6 here we see how the periodicity of the periodic table is a result of this geometry : eg [carbon, silicon, germanium]
    1880.3 here we see how the periodicity of the periodic table of the elements is a result of these geometrical shapes. so the valence factor or rather how many connections we can make with a certain element.
    2016.8 Why are the Actinides the only fissile elements?, decay of Carbon14 : according to the new model you can see carbon 14 in the center. we have the same carbon nucleic that was blue just a moment ago. we have the top one extra Neutron and on the bottom one extra Neutron, meaning it's a proton plus an electron to bind it together. when they come close they Decay meaning two are together now. and there's only one electron needed, or rather actually, there's only room for one electron. so this second electron is booted out. as we could see here, it moves into orbit, therefore we reach the next element.
    2141.5 looking for new elements: halfway through the periodic table, close to [iron, copper, silver, gold, etc]. nature tends to skip these steps, simply not so much because it cannot be done but because the combination of two. to make diffusion happen usually we get a helium nuclei, or a alpha particle, which combines an alpha particle, consists of four of these protons. but to create that missing element in between we need two deuterium. to act on that just the <chain space,chance based?> and the abundance of certain elements makes it almost impossible. besides that, we are not even aware that there might be something missing. it is my belief that ultimately these elements will be either discovered or created. I hope to think might actually validate this model in the future.
    2229.8 Nucleus breaks where branches touch?: interesting "collision" where two branches of nucleus basically touch each other. I believe that due to that coming together, branches is where the nucleus breaks.
    2350.4 I would like to summarize the new atomic model follow. we have a duality that we call a proton electron pair, with the electrostatic force acting between them. this force is the causal mechanism for the principle of densest packing that creates geometrical shapes. this geometrical shapes in specific order sequence and number create all the elements. the model shows the observe nature and properties of the atom, and explains the reason why the nucleus of the atom is positively charged, why the outer elections stay at range. you do not fall into the nucleus. and addresses a causal factor of chemistry. in fact physics and chemistry are kinda separated exactly where the atom is. in this case the physical model goes straight into chemistry.
    2399.9 some potential implications: [plasma physics, astrophysics, cosmology, chemistry, nuclear fusion]. maybe even [smaller nanotechnology, radiometric dating, transmutations, new elements]
    2442.1 conclude with the thanks. many people to thank but a few persons in particular, for you. EU support unwavering I would say. James Orson special. he made the attend all the inner website, and it will become in the end I hope a tool that we can use for educational purposes.

    Gareth Samuel 03Jul2021 The Structured Atom Model | Thunderbolts

    "... The atomic model has remained unchanged for a long time. Yet, there are mysteries it has been unable to solve such as why certain elements are more stable than others, and predicting how large atoms split. In the Structured Atom Model (SAM) the nucleus is constructed using protons which are bound together with inner electrons in a very specific geometric structure.

    Contributor and EU advocate, Gareth Samuel, host of "See the Pattern", outlines how spheres being attracted inwards creates stable, and unstable, geometric shapes—and the process by which larger atoms can be created. The SAM concept matches what is observed in nature. ..."

    00:20 nuclear decay processes
    Do we really understand how decay products are created? One problem is predicting how the larger atoms split.

    00:33 decay process of U235
    Why does U split assymmetrically, if the nucleus is simply a collection of [proton, neutron]s jumbled around?

    00:46 alpha particle emission, problems with the standard explanations 02:12 SAM basics: nucleus structure, electrostatic, no [neutron, strong force] 03:42 SAM periodic table

    04:06 SAM transmutations confirmed in SAFIRE laboratory

    04:40 Inner nuclear structure dictates chemical properties

    05:11 Formation of elements doesn't require stars

    06:06 Other SAM [assumptions, advantages]


    I will add material later - mostly links to SAFIRE experiments showing how the plasma system works, and to their videos...

    SAFIRE electric sun experiments

    SAFIRE = Solar Atmosphere something something

    The SAFIRE reactor (from the video The Walkthrough:

    SAFIRE spherical plasma Lanmuir isotherms and temperatures : SAFIRE electric sun surface granules, resembling somewhat granules at surface of son (chromosphere or photosphere?) :

    SAFIRE fusion energy projects
    magnetic confinement types (like ITER)
    temperature (Kelvin) 500 K outside of plasma Langmuir shells
    1,000 K surface of electrode
    3,000,000 K within some shells
    10 to 100 MKelvin ??
    pressure (MPa) vaccum (?? mPa?) 2016 Alcator C-Mod : 210 kPa (31.7 psi)
    (plasma pressure record at the time?)
    MIT: magnetic confinement approach uses strong magnetic fields to confine a very hot—many times hotter than the center of the sun—plasma with pressures up to 10 times the atmospheric pressure at Earth’s surface
    Apr2022 First Light hypersonic projectile fusion prototype : 100 TPa

    Denis Whyte of MIT, showing a modern tomarak-like fusion energy system :

    SAFIRE [team, consultants] 2017? :
    Note that : plasma [science, technology] elements created in hydrogen plasma reactor at very low [T, P] :
    (low [T, P] compared to fusion energy reactors) [team, visitors] 2023 :

    Howell: questions about SAM

    Just as "a picture is worth a thousand words" :

    Nomenclature, acronyms

    active radioactive nuclear fuel, spent fuel, other with [environment, safety] implications
    Quantum Mechanics, standard in physics
    deactivate transmutation of actives
    fissile atoms that can be split by neutrons in a self-sustaining chain-reaction to release enormous amounts of energy
    HEU Highly Enriched Uranium, contains [Pu239, U235]
    see above: "Nuclear [material, process, deactivate]s"
    plasma charge-separate double-layer that "insulates" different plasma environments
    example: Langmuir probes are required to get useful voltage reading in plasma environments
    LEU Lowly Enriched Uranium, cannot be used for weapons
    electric field that causes convection of ions and electrons inward towards a central twisting filamentary axis
    named after Swedish physicist Göran Marklund
    may explain elemental composition of planets going outward from Sun?
    PT-HWR Pressure Tube - Heavy Water Reactor (eg CANDU)
    QM Quantum Mechanics, standard concept in physics
    SAM Stuctured Atom Model of Edo Kaal, speculative replacement for QM
    Z-pinch Lorentz force on a current-carrying [conductor, plasma] in a magnetic field (see also [Birkeland, Marklund] above)

    Definitions: nuclear [material, process, deactivate]s

    Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (viewed 05Jan2024) "Fissile Material Basics"
    For a safer, healthier environment and the democratization of science

    What are fissile materials?

    Fissile materials are composed of atoms that can be split by neutrons in a self-sustaining chain-reaction to release enormous amounts of energy. In nuclear reactors, the fission process is controlled and the energy is harnessed to produce electricity. In nuclear weapons, the fission energy is released all at once to produce a violent explosion. The most important fissile materials for nuclear energy and nuclear weapons are an isotope of plutonium, plutonium-239, and an isotope of uranium, uranium-235. Uranium-235 occurs in nature. For all practical purposes, plutonium-239 does not.
    What is plutonium-239?

    Plutonium-239 (hereafter referred to as “plutonium") is a heavy element consisting of 94 protons and 145 neutrons. It can have a number of chemical forms. Nuclear weapons use plutonium metal. Plutonium dioxide is used as a component of some nuclear fuels. Plutonium has a half-life of over 24,000 years (a half-life is the time it takes for half of a given amount of radioactive material to decay into other elements).

    What is highly enriched uranium?

    The other important fissile material that has been used for nuclear weapons is highly enriched uranium (HEU), usually defined as uranium whose proportion of uranium-235, the fissile isotope of uranium, has been increased to over 90%. The natural uranium mined from the earth consists of about 0.7% uranium-235 (U-235), and about 99.3% uranium-238 (U-238),, and enrichment is the process of increasing the ratio of U-235 to U-238. The half life of uranium-235 is 704 million years, while the half life of U-238 is about 4.5 billion years.

    It is important to note that most nuclear reactors run on low-enriched uranium (LEU), which is usually 3%-5% uranium-235. LEU cannot be used in nuclear weapons.

    What is HEU used for?

    HEU was first developed for use in nuclear weapons. It can be combined with plutonium to form the “pit", or core of a nuclear weapon, or it can be used alone as the nuclear explosive. The bomb dropped on Hiroshima used only HEU. About 15-20 kgs of HEU are sufficient to make a bomb without plutonium.

    HEU also has non-weapon uses. It is used as a fuel in research reactors and the nuclear reactors that power some naval vessels.

    About 2300 metric tons of HEU have been produced for military purposes worldwide — primarily by the United States and the Soviet Union. About 20 metric tons of HEU have been used in research reactors worldwide.